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Record Information
Creation Date2016-05-19 01:31:42 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:09:15 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM003992
Common NamePropiophenone, 4'-amino
ClassSmall Molecule
Description4'-Aminopropiophenone (para-aminopropiophenone or PAPP) is a chemical compound. It is highly toxic, and can cause injury or death upon physical contact or inhalation of fumes.The toxicity of PAPP is derived from its action on circulating hemoglobin, rapidly converting it to methemoglobin (similar to nitrate poisoning). As methemoglobin is not capable of transporting oxygen like hemoglobin, elevated blood levels (methemoglobinemia) lead to hypoxia, coma, and death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration.PAPP was first assessed at the Denver Wildlife Research Centre for its potential as a predator control agent in the United States in the early 1980s yet was not developed into a practical technology. From the 1990s scientists based at the then Victorian Institute of Animal Science (Australia) were the first to demonstrate that PAPP could be formulated as a rapid acting and humane means of feral cat and exotic red fox control.Improved animal welfare outcomes and the existence of an antidote to treat accidental poisoning was an attractive feature of the agent given that the humaneness of the most commonly used poison (sodium fluoroacetate or '1080') is equivocal and no antidote exists for treating accidental 1080 poisoning. Due to the short duration after consumption before death it is critical the antidote be administered as soon as possible. The only antidote treatment that has been shown to work reliably to date is by intravenous (IV) administration.Researchers also discovered that the delivery of PAPP in feral cat baits within a specialised capsule, which exploits the unique dentition and feeding strategies of feral cats, could greatly limit the exposure of non-target animals to PAPP even if they consume a bait. This became a significant feature adopted in the development of a feral cat bait that became known as 'Curiosity' Initially collaborating with scientists in Victoria, New Zealand researchers independently developed PAPP formulations and baiting techniques for introduced predators. Initial indications that PAPP was far more toxic to mammals than birds was an attractive feature of its use in New Zealand where it was formulated to control stoats, weasels, and feral cats and registered for use in New Zealand in 2011. PAPP is being further investigated in Australia for use on feral cats, red foxes and wild dogs. In New Zealand PAPP kills stoats at low bait concentrations that are not lethal to far more tolerant exotic possums and rats. In New Zealand it is approved for use in paste form or in fresh minced meat, so will only provide effective stoat control as part of intensive ground control. The potential for environmental contamination appears to be low since it does not leave residues in the environment. At this stage the risk of non-target impacts (by-kill) is thought to be acceptably low using paste formulations, although more recent assessments have shown that some birds are more susceptible to PAPP than previously anticipated.
Contaminant Sources
  • Clean Air Act Chemicals
Contaminant TypeNot Available
Chemical Structure
HCL OF 4-AminopropiophenoneMeSH
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO
Average Molecular Mass149.193 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass149.084 g/mol
CAS Registry Number70-69-9
IUPAC Name1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-1-one
Traditional Name1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-1-one
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11NO/c1-2-9(11)7-3-5-8(10)6-4-7/h3-6H,2,10H2,1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkyl-phenylketones. These are aromatic compounds containing a ketone substituted by one alkyl group, and a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlkyl-phenylketones
Alternative Parents
  • Alkyl-phenylketone
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Benzoyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginNot Available
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.76 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.09 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity45.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-0900000000-e6c896f0ebaa930b4a77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f89-2900000000-1b63684bc41197efcf20View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9400000000-e4beae2238fc5e084e61View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-22e40f8ad75b18af84c3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-c19c7a66e61bedd23a02View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9500000000-d7f0d00dbc1348049c95View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia Link4'-Aminopropiophenone
Chemspider IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6270
Kegg Compound IDNot Available
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available