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Record Information
Creation Date2014-10-14 21:18:37 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:09:15 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM003935
Common NamePioglitazone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPioglitazone is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pioglitazone selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisone proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). It modulates the transcription of the insulin-sensitive genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism in the lipidic, muscular tissues and in the liver.
Contaminant Sources
  • HMDB Contaminants - Urine
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 2A
  • STOFF IDENT Compounds
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Drug
  • Hypoglycemic Agent
  • Metabolite
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Pioglitazone HCLHMDB
Pioglitazone hydrochlorideHMDB
Poglitazone hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC19H20N2O3S
Average Molecular Mass356.439 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass356.119 g/mol
CAS Registry Number111025-46-8
IUPAC Name5-({4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}methyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
Traditional Namepioglitazone
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H20N2O3S/c1-2-13-3-6-15(20-12-13)9-10-24-16-7-4-14(5-8-16)11-17-18(22)21-19(23)25-17/h3-8,12,17H,2,9-11H2,1H3,(H,21,22,23)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenol ethers
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Thiazolidinedione
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyridine
  • Dicarboximide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiazolidine
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Thiocarbamic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting Point183-184 °C
Boiling PointNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0044 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area68.29 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity97.39 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability37.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-05fr-0982000000-bc531fd621e090712033View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-070cf69939743719671dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0bt9-0209000000-d9d34be41f49a9ffbdefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-ef25b6f93ae4fcee23c3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-3011f00e839bfc06d89dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0gba-0900000000-b0488e0d155d1587bbb5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014j-0900000000-b32570ad6af58a4a6c72View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-c67370f6cb2ad36cab3eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0a59-0908000000-aab2ee9addb1334a7064View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-fd4bc4d9d4bb45e91295View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0409000000-115c6889c4e9205b3028View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-a2e878da4d2f6a4bb717View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-031fa259cd3b26217dadView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00lr-0900000000-e2cd3c294a2e53e1a17eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0159-1900000000-aacbd8dce006b5ef5938View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-1619000000-4b248e31af7f50e87108View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-053r-0906000000-a73152b364036b45dfebView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0219000000-989038e0dc6e9a9ecf80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0540-0984000000-b1e6f3241976f6936760View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0kai-1900000000-8b2d810f6330f368aa47View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0159000000-0b74a48747ffb1b4f2d2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0uec-3692000000-141c6eb446379ead16bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0f6x-9700000000-a10d6ccf2ad58937dfa5View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureFollowing oral administration, in the fasting state, pioglitazone is first measurable in serum within 30 minutes, with peak concentrations observed within 2 hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak serum concentration to 3 to 4 hours, but does not alter the extent of absorption.
Mechanism of ToxicityPioglitazone acts as an agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors increases the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. In this way, pioglitazone both enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is improved without an increase in insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells.
Toxicity ValuesHypogycemia; LD50=mg/kg (orally in rat)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (4)
Uses/SourcesTreatment of Type II diabetes mellitus
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01132
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPioglitazone
Chemspider ID4663
ChEBI ID8228
PubChem Compound ID4829
Kegg Compound IDC07675
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Chandra Khanduri, Yatendra Kumar, Atulya Panda, Suchitra Chakraborty, Mukesh Sharma, “Process for the preparation of pioglitazone.” U.S. Patent US20070078170, issued April 05, 2007.

MSDSNot Available
General References
1. Colca JR, McDonald WG, Waldon DJ, Leone JW, Lull JM, Bannow CA, Lund ET, Mathews WR: Identification of a novel mitochondrial protein ("mitoNEET") cross-linked specifically by a thiazolidinedione photoprobe. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;286(2):E252-60. Epub 2003 Oct 21.
2. Paddock ML, Wiley SE, Axelrod HL, Cohen AE, Roy M, Abresch EC, Capraro D, Murphy AN, Nechushtai R, Dixon JE, Jennings PA: MitoNEET is a uniquely folded 2Fe 2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein stabilized by pioglitazone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 4;104(36):14342-7. Epub 2007 Aug 31.
3. Lincoff AM, Wolski K, Nicholls SJ, Nissen SE: Pioglitazone and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA. 2007 Sep 12;298(10):1180-8.