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Record Information
Creation Date2014-10-02 22:31:28 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:09:15 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM003927
Common NameBromide ion
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIn nature, bromine is most abundant as a bromide ion. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand. Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as sedatives in the 19th and early 20th century. Their use in over-the-counter sedatives and headache remedies (such as Bromo-Seltzer) in the United States extended to 1975, when bromides were withdrawn as ingredients, due to chronic toxicity. Bromide is present in typical seawater (35 PSU) with a concentration of around 65 mg/L, which is around 0.2% of all dissolved salts. Bromide is needed by eosinophils (white blood cells of the granulocyte class, specialized for dealing with multi-cellular parasites), which use it to generate antiparasitic brominating compounds such as hypobromite, by the action of eosinophil peroxidase, a haloperoxidase enzyme which is able to use chloride, but preferentially uses bromide when available.
Contaminant Sources
  • FooDB Chemicals
  • HMDB Contaminants - Urine
  • HPV EPA Chemicals
  • STOFF IDENT Compounds
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
Chemical Structure
Bromine anionChEBI
Bromine ionHMDB
Chemical FormulaBr
Average Molecular Mass79.904 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass78.918 g/mol
CAS Registry Number24959-67-9
IUPAC Namebromide
Traditional Namebromide
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/BrH/h1H/p-1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous halogens
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous halogens
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous halogen
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Actin Filament
  • Apical Membrane
  • Basolateral Membrane
  • Cell junction
  • Cell surface
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Endosome
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrial Matrix
  • Mitochondrion
  • Nuclear Membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Ribosome
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Metabolic PathwaysNot AvailableNot Available
PenicillinsNot AvailableNot Available
Gastric acid secretionNot Availablemap04971
QuinolonesNot AvailableNot Available
Oxidative phosphorylationNot Availablemap00190
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid or Liquid
AppearanceClear liquid
Experimental Properties
Melting PointDepends on salt form
Boiling PointDepends on salt form
Solubility>100 mg/mL at 25°C
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.6 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-1900000000-7a2f3d28680a6f34d0e5View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (3, 5, 1)
MetabolismDue to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 85.2 ppm (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (2) LD50: 2600 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LC50: 750 ppm over 9 minutes (Inhalation, Mouse) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (6)
Uses/SourcesBromide is present in typical seawater (35 PSU) with a concentration of around 65 mg/L, which is around 0.2% of all dissolved salts. Bromide ions can be found in almost all living organisms, though it is not essential for life.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThe bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. (4, 3, 5)
SymptomsThe bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. (3, 5)
TreatmentIn case of acute exposure, bromide salts should be washed with water from any areas of dermal or ocular contact. If inhaled, treatment is mainly symptomatic and may include maintaining an adequate airway, administering oxygen, antibronchospasm therapy, and/or antibiotics. (3)
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023017
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDBR-
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBromide
Chemspider ID254
ChEBI ID15858
PubChem Compound ID259
Kegg Compound IDC01324
YMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
1. Baker DH: Iodine toxicity and its amelioration. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Jun;229(6):473-8.
2. Pavelka S: Metabolism of bromide and its interference with the metabolism of iodine. Physiol Res. 2004;53 Suppl 1:S81-90.
3. Brede C, Pedersen-Bjergaard S: State-of-the art of selective detection and identification of I-, Br-, Cl-, and F-containing compounds in gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Sep 24;1050(1):45-62.
4. Cuenca RE, Pories WJ, Bray J: Bromine levels in human serum, urine, hair. Short communication. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988 Jul;16(2):151-4.
5. Kim HS, Yamada H, Tsuno H: The removal of estrogenic activity and control of brominated by-products during ozonation of secondary effluents. Water Res. 2007 Apr;41(7):1441-6. Epub 2007 Feb 20.