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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2014-09-17 20:02:20 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:09:14 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM003905
Identification
Common NameDisodium tetraborate, anhydrous
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBorax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, has a wide variety of uses. It is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is also used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound for fiberglass, as a flux in metallurgy, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, and as a precursor for other boron compounds. In artisanal gold mining, the borax method is sometimes used as a substitute for toxic mercury in the gold extraction process. Borax, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, according to one study, is not acutely toxic. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate was once registered as an insecticide for a brief period, and the product was issued a "Danger" signal word by the EPA. Registration was allowed to lapse after the initial one year registration due to the fact the product could not be legally sold over the counter as an insecticide due to the dangers the product posed to the general public. Danger is the highest level signal word issued by the EPA. Its LD50 (median lethal dose) score is tested at 2.66 g/kg in rats: a significant dose of the chemical is needed to cause severe symptoms or death. The lethal dose is not necessarily the same for humans. Sufficient exposure to borax dust can cause respiratory and skin irritation. Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress including nausea, persistent vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Effects on the vascular system and brain include headaches and lethargy, but are less frequent. "In severe poisonings, a beefy red skin rash affecting palms, soles, buttocks and scrotum has been described. With severe poisoning, erythematous and exfoliative rash, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, and renal failure." Borax was added to the Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) candidate list on 16 December 2010. The SVHC candidate list is part of the EU Regulations on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals 2006 (REACH), and the addition was based on the revised classification of borax as toxic for reproduction category 1B under the CLP Regulations. Substances and mixtures imported into the EU which contain borax are now required to be labelled with the warnings "May damage fertility" and "May damage the unborn child". (Wikipedia)
Contaminant Sources
  • EAFUS Chemicals
  • ECHA Toxic for reproduction
  • HPV EPA Chemicals
  • OECD HPV Chemicals
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Insecticide
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Disodium bicyclo[3.3.1]tetraboroxane-3,7-bis(olic acid)Generator
Sodium diborateMeSH
Sodium tetraborateMeSH
Disodium borate, monohydrateMeSH
Sodium metaborateMeSH
Disodium borate, heptahydrateMeSH
KomexMeSH
Sodium borateMeSH
Sodium meta borateMeSH
Monosodium metaborateMeSH
Sodium borate (nabo2)MeSH
Chemical FormulaB4Na2O7
Average Molecular Mass201.219 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass201.981 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1303-96-4 and 1330-43-4 and 12179-04-3
IUPAC Namedisodium bicyclo[3.3.1]tetraboroxane-3,7-bis(olate)
Traditional Namedisodium bicyclo[3.3.1]tetraboroxane-3,7-bis(olate)
SMILES[Na+].[Na+].[O-]B1OB2OB([O-])OB(O1)O2
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/B4O7.2Na/c5-1-7-3-9-2(6)10-4(8-1)11-3;;/q-2;2*+1
InChI KeyUQGFMSUEHSUPRD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal borates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is borate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkali metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkali metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkali metal borates
Direct ParentAlkali metal borates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Borate
  • Alkali metal borate
  • Inorganic sodium salt
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
  • Inorganic metalloid salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearancePowdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.34ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area104 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity44.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.53 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-89d75eccb0d5c687676bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-d67b53e737a4f2817c2dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4090000000-cb876ca5e86588f3f600View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesBorax is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is also used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound for fiberglass, as a flux in metallurgy, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, and as a precursor for other boron compounds. In artisanal gold mining, the borax method is sometimes used as a substitute for toxic mercury in the gold extraction process.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDBSALT002513
HMDB IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID10219853
Kegg Compound IDNot Available
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available