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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:16:16 UTC
Update Date2016-10-28 10:04:44 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM003737
Identification
Common NameTheophylline
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA methylxanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Mechanistically, theophylline acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, adenosine receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. Theophylline is marketed under several brand names such as Uniphyl and Theochron, and it is indicated mainly for asthma, bronchospasm, and COPD.
Contaminant Sources
  • FooDB Chemicals
  • HMDB Contaminants - Urine
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 3
  • OECD HPV Chemicals
  • STOFF IDENT Compounds
  • Suspected Compounds
  • Suspected Compounds – Schymanski Project
  • T3DB toxins
  • ToxCast & Tox21 Chemicals
Contaminant Type
  • Amide
  • Bronchodilator Agent
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Muscle Relaxant, Respiratory
  • Organic Compound
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor
  • Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonist
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Vasodilator Agent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,3-Dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
1,3-DimethylxanthineChEBI
ElixophyllinChEBI
RespbidChEBI
Theo-durChEBI
TheolairChEBI
TheophyllinChEBI
Theophylline anhydrousChEBI
UniphylChEBI
Quibron-tKegg
Theo-24Kegg
Theodur gKegg
AccurbronHMDB
Acet-theocinHMDB
AerolateHMDB
Aerolate IIIHMDB
Aerolate SRHMDB
AminophyllineHMDB
AquaphyllinHMDB
ArmophyllineHMDB
AsbronHMDB
AsmaxHMDB
AustynHMDB
BronkodylHMDB
Bronkodyl SRHMDB
Choledyl saHMDB
Constant-THMDB
DiphyllinHMDB
DoraphyllinHMDB
DuraphylHMDB
Dyspne-inhalHMDB
ElixexHMDB
ElixiconHMDB
ElixominHMDB
Elixophyllin SRHMDB
ElixophyllineHMDB
EuphyllineHMDB
EuphylongHMDB
LabidHMDB
LanophyllinHMDB
LiquophyllineHMDB
LiquoriceHMDB
MaphyllineHMDB
MedaphyllinHMDB
NuelinHMDB
OptiphyllinHMDB
ParkophyllinHMDB
PseudotheophyllineHMDB
Quibron t/srHMDB
Quibron-t/srHMDB
Slo-bidHMDB
Slo-phyllinHMDB
SolosinHMDB
Somophyllin-CRTHMDB
Somophyllin-DFHMDB
Somophyllin-THMDB
Spophyllin retardHMDB
SustaireHMDB
SynophylateHMDB
Synophylate-l.a. cenulesHMDB
T-PhylHMDB
TefaminHMDB
TeofilinaHMDB
TeofyllaminHMDB
TeolairHMDB
TheacitinHMDB
Theal tabl.HMDB
Theal tabletsHMDB
Theo-dur-sprinkleHMDB
TheobidHMDB
Theobid jr.HMDB
TheochronHMDB
TheocinHMDB
Theoclair-SRHMDB
Theoclear 80HMDB
Theoclear l.a.-130HMDB
Theoclear laHMDB
Theoclear-200HMDB
Theoclear-80HMDB
TheocontinHMDB
TheodelHMDB
TheofolHMDB
TheogradHMDB
Theolair-SRHMDB
TheolixHMDB
TheolixirHMDB
Theona pHMDB
TheophylHMDB
Theophyl-225HMDB
Theophyl-SRHMDB
TheophylineHMDB
Theophylline-SRHMDB
Theostat 80HMDB
TheoventHMDB
Uni-durHMDB
UnifylHMDB
UniphyllinHMDB
XanthiumHMDB
XantiventHMDB
AerobinHMDB
BronchoparatHMDB
Glycine theophyllinateHMDB
Nuelin s.a.HMDB
Slo phyllinHMDB
SloPhyllinHMDB
Somophyllin THMDB
Theo24HMDB
Theoconfin continuousHMDB
TheoniteHMDB
CT Arzneimittel brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
Von CT, theoHMDB
Mundipharma brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
Quibron T SRHMDB
Quibron T-SRHMDB
Sodium glycinate, theophyllineHMDB
Theo 24HMDB
Theophyllinate, glycineHMDB
Theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
TheospanHMDB
UniphyllineHMDB
CT-Arzneimittel brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
ConstantTHMDB
Fameasan brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
LodraneHMDB
MonospanHMDB
Quibron TSRHMDB
TheodurHMDB
TheonHMDB
TheopekHMDB
TheostatHMDB
CT, Theo vonHMDB
Theo von CTHMDB
1,3 DimethylxanthineHMDB
3,7-Dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneHMDB
Afonilum retardHMDB
Anhydrous, theophyllineHMDB
Constant THMDB
Fujisawa brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateHMDB
Glycinate, theophylline sodiumHMDB
SomophyllinTHMDB
Theo durHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Molecular Mass180.164 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass180.065 g/mol
CAS Registry Number58-55-9
IUPAC Name1,3-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nametheophylline
SMILESCN1C2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)N(C)C1=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-5-4(8-3-9-5)6(12)11(2)7(10)13/h3H,1-2H3,(H,8,9)
InChI KeyZFXYFBGIUFBOJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neutrophil
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028 map00232
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point273°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility7360 mg/L (at 25°C)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility22.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.26ALOGPS
logP-0.77ChemAxon
logS-0.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity44.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0f79-6970000000-224461ad62a44dbdf860View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0fka-4900000000-878cab6882fd80efba3bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-001j-7900000000-a08735d528e738752429View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-001i-0900000000-d0882f7d959c726e7623View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-001i-9700000000-8d0e1898a6571fbca10aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0f79-6970000000-224461ad62a44dbdf860View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-0092516012d6a2a93b31View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-4900000000-dcf52c18a6996f412b1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kf-9000000000-09089337909892ef44cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-001j-7900000000-a08735d528e738752429View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d0882f7d959c726e7623View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c4943571126a44bb9e5aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-bc12ce29acd02fa749b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03k9-0900000000-d63f60043f186fbb9bc0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-070l-4900000000-d293ab2fa6199dbaf97aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-05ru-9400000000-dde4775588d52c83806fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-556e382f583d610ef1f0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-89e34f5158856ba33469View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03k9-0900000000-65a6897d72954e875b00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-070l-4900000000-df16604bd6c40cee8f24View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-05r3-9500000000-39a721dcecc86ed95507View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-e67ff7ef9a955b90eb3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-3900000000-1870952d98dbba22ace8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-7900000000-dc0e9606776c43a7823fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-014j-9300000000-2c4c6490dda3ed3b563fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-26a6c0c23a465afdcde1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-1900000000-b11ca3441bb29fef1906View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9400000000-63726fe0b49a9dc6ba7eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9100000000-139f765bc9b5855960c6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-88b5cb393b960973ac64View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00yi-9000000000-1ebbddce3c7133972546View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00lr-9500000000-2c8464c2fe84464c207fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureTheophylline is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration in solution or immediate-release solid oral dosage form.
Mechanism of ToxicityTheophylline relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels and reduces airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, adenosine, and allergen. Theophylline competitively inhibits type III and type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic AMP in smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in bronchodilation. Theophylline also binds to the adenosine A2B receptor and blocks adenosine mediated bronchoconstriction. In inflammatory states, theophylline activates histone deacetylase to prevent transcription of inflammatory genes that require the acetylation of histones for transcription to begin.
MetabolismHepatic. Biotransformation takes place through demethylation to 1-methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine and hydroxylation to 1,3-dimethyluric acid. 1-methylxanthine is further hydroxylated, by xanthine oxidase, to 1-methyluric acid. About 6% of a theophylline dose is N-methylated to caffeine. Caffeine and 3-methylxanthine are the only theophylline metabolites with pharmacologic activity. Route of Elimination: Theophylline does not undergo any appreciable pre-systemic elimination, distributes freely into fat-free tissues and is extensively metabolized in the liver. Renal excretion of unchanged theophylline in neonates amounts to about 50% of the dose, compared to about 10% in children older than three months and in adults. Half Life: 8 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (14)
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include seizures, arrhythmias, and GI effects.
TreatmentNot Available
Concentrations
StatusValueUnitSample LocationReference
DrugBank IDDB00277
HMDB IDHMDB0001889
FooDB IDFDB000453
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001510
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-12479
METLIN ID1458
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTheophylline
Chemspider ID2068
ChEBI ID28177
PubChem Compound ID2153
Kegg Compound IDC07130
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nicolae S. Bodor, Kenneth B. Sloan, Yu-Neng Kuo, “Method for synthesizing certain selected pro-drug forms of theophylline.” U.S. Patent US4000132, issued January, 1956.

MSDSLink
General References
1. Bath PM: Theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine and analogues for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD000211.
2. Yasui K, Agematsu K, Shinozaki K, Hokibara S, Nagumo H, Yamada S, Kobayashi N, Komiyama A: Effects of theophylline on human eosinophil functions: comparative study with neutrophil functions. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Aug;68(2):194-200.
3. Gerbershagen MU, Fiege M, Weisshorn R, Kolodzie K, Wappler F: [Theophylline induces contractures in porcine skeletal muscle preparations with the disposition to malignant hyperthermia]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004 Mar;39(3):147-52.
4. Mahomed AG, Theron AJ, Anderson R, Feldman C: Anti-oxidative effects of theophylline on human neutrophils involve cyclic nucleotides and protein kinase A. Inflammation. 1998 Dec;22(6):545-57.
5. Andreas S, Reiter H, Luthje L, Delekat A, Grunewald RW, Hasenfuss G, Somers VK: Differential effects of theophylline on sympathetic excitation, hemodynamics, and breathing in congestive heart failure. Circulation. 2004 Oct 12;110(15):2157-62. Epub 2004 Oct 4.
6. Yano Y, Yoshida M, Hoshino S, Inoue K, Kida H, Yanagita M, Takimoto T, Hirata H, Kijima T, Kumagai T, Osaki T, Tachibana I, Kawase I: Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 17;341(3):684-90. Epub 2006 Jan 18.
7. Mohiuddin AA, Bath FJ, Bath PM: Theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine and analogues for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000211.
8. Mehta R, Weinberger B, Usmani SS, Wapnir RA, Harper RG: Theophylline alters neutrophil function in preterm infants. Biol Neonate. 2002;81(3):176-81.
9. Benoehr P, Krueth P, Bokemeyer C, Grenz A, Osswald H, Hartmann JT: Nephroprotection by theophylline in patients with cisplatin chemotherapy: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Feb;16(2):452-8. Epub 2004 Dec 8.
10. Spoelstra FM, Berends C, Dijkhuizen B, de Monchy JG, Kauffman HF: Effect of theophylline on CD11b and L-selectin expression and density of eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro. Eur Respir J. 1998 Sep;12(3):585-91.
11. Bailey DN: Relative binding of acetaminophen, lidocaine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, quinidine, and theophylline to human tissues in vitro. J Anal Toxicol. 1997 Jan-Feb;21(1):1-4.
12. Teplinskaia LE, Filichkina NS, Matevosova KS: [Efficiency of treatment of uveitis with the drug superlymph]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2005 Jul-Aug;121(4):22-6.
13. Yoshiike T, Aikawa Y, Sindhvananda J, Suto H, Nishimura K, Kawamoto T, Ogawa H: Skin barrier defect in atopic dermatitis: increased permeability of the stratum corneum using dimethyl sulfoxide and theophylline. J Dermatol Sci. 1993 Apr;5(2):92-6.
14. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043.
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