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Record Information
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:58:33 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:08:27 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM001109
Common NameAluminium arsenide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAluminum arsenide is a chemical compound of arsenic and aluminum. Arsenic is a chemical element that has the symbol As and atomic number 33. It is a poisonous metalloid that has many allotropic forms: yellow (molecular non-metallic) and several black and grey forms (metalloids) are a few that are seen. Three metalloidal forms of arsenic with different crystal structures are found free in nature (the minerals arsenopyrite and the much rarer arsenolamprite and pararsenolamprite), but it is more commonly found as a compound with other elements. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust and is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. (11, 12, 5)
Contaminant Sources
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 1
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Aluminum Compound
  • Arsenic Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaAlAsH3
Average Molecular Mass104.927 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass104.927 g/mol
CAS Registry Number22831-42-1
IUPAC Namealumane arsane
Traditional Namealumane arsane
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Al.AsH3/h;1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing a trivalent arsenic atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMiscellaneous inorganic compounds
ClassInorganic arsenic compounds
Sub ClassTrivalent inorganic arsenic compounds
Direct ParentTrivalent inorganic arsenic compounds
Alternative Parents
  • Trivalent inorganic arsenic compound
  • Inorganic salt
  • Miscellaneous mixed metal/non-metal
  • Inorganic metalloid salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceOrange crystals.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point1740°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-b9aae484bf373c601295View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-b9aae484bf373c601295View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-b9aae484bf373c601295View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-f2125d10ed61b4ed79f6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-f2125d10ed61b4ed79f6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-f2125d10ed61b4ed79f6View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6) ; dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityArsenic and its metabolites disrupt ATP production through several mechanisms. At the level of the citric acid cycle, arsenic inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase and by competing with phosphate it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, thus inhibiting energy-linked reduction of NAD+, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP synthesis. Hydrogen peroxide production is also increased, which might form reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Arsenic's carginogenicity is influenced by the arsenical binding of tubulin, which results in aneuploidy, polyploidy and mitotic arrests. The binding of other arsenic protein targets may also cause altered DNA repair enzyme activity, altered DNA methylation patterns and cell proliferation. The main target organs of aluminum are the central nervous system and bone. Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve several mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a results of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. (11, 2, 3, 4, 1)
MetabolismArsenic is absorbed mainly by inhalation or ingestion, as to a lesser extent, dermal exposure. It is then distributed throughout the body, where it is reduced into arsenite if necessary, then methylated into monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) by arsenite methyltransferase. Arsenic and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Arsenic is known to induce the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which decreases the toxic effects of arsenic and other metals by binding them and making them biologically inactive, as well as acting as an antioxidant. Aluminum is poorly absorbed following either oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. (11, 7)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0003 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Inhalation: 0.01 mg/m3 (Arsenic) (9) Intermediate Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (Aluminum) (9) Chronic Oral: 1.0 mg/kg/day (Aluminum) (9)
Health EffectsArsenic poisoning can lead to death from multi-system organ failure, probably from necrotic cell death, not apoptosis. Arsenic is also a known carcinogen, esepcially in skin, liver, bladder and lung cancers. Aluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (11, 12, 4, 7)
SymptomsExposure to lower levels of arsenic can cause nausea and vomiting, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm, and damage to blood vessels.
TreatmentArsenic poisoning can be treated by chelation therapy, using chelating agents such as dimercaprol, EDTA or DMSA. Charcoal tablets may also be used for less severe cases. In addition, maintaining a diet high in sulfur helps eliminate arsenic from the body. (7)
Not Available
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HMDB IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
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BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
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Wikipedia LinkNot Available
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ChEBI IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
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Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
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