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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:28 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:08:12 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM000250
Identification
Common NameZinc arsenate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionZinc arsenate is a chemical compound of zinc and arsenic derived from arsenic acid. Zinc is a metallic element with the atomic number 30. It is found in nature most often as the mineral sphalerite. Though excess zinc in harmful, in smaller amounts it is an essential element for life, as it is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes and is found in just as many transcription factors. Arsenic is a chemical element that has the symbol As and atomic number 33. It is a poisonous metalloid that has many allotropic forms: yellow (molecular non-metallic) and several black and grey forms (metalloids) are a few that are seen. Three metalloidal forms of arsenic with different crystal structures are found free in nature (the minerals arsenopyrite and the much rarer arsenolamprite and pararsenolamprite), but it is more commonly found as a compound with (6, 7)
Contaminant Sources
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 1
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Arsenic Compound
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Zinc Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Zinc arsenic acidGenerator
Chemical FormulaAs2O8Zn3
Average Molecular Mass474.065 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass469.590 g/mol
CAS Registry Number13464-44-3
IUPAC Nametrizinc(2+) ion diarsorate
Traditional Nametrizinc(2+) ion diarsenate
SMILES[Zn++].[Zn++].[Zn++].[O-][As]([O-])([O-])=O.[O-][As]([O-])([O-])=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/2AsH3O4.3Zn/c2*2-1(3,4)5;;;/h2*(H3,2,3,4,5);;;/q;;3*+2/p-6
InChI KeyLHBPLFWXEXNIJU-UHFFFAOYSA-H
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal arsenates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is arsenate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassTransition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassTransition metal arsenates
Direct ParentTransition metal arsenates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Transition metal arsenate
  • Arsenate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
  • Inorganic metalloid salt
  • Inorganic arsenic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceDeep green color (12).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.25 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability6.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4); dermal (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityAnaemia results from the excessive absorption of zinc suppressing copper and iron absorption, most likely through competitive binding of intestinal mucosal cells. Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Stomach acid dissolves metallic zinc to give corrosive zinc chloride, which can cause damage to the stomach lining. Metal fume fever is thought to be an immune response to inhaled zinc. Arsenic and its metabolites disrupt ATP production through several mechanisms. At the level of the citric acid cycle, arsenic inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase and by competing with phosphate it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, thus inhibiting energy-linked reduction of NAD+, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP synthesis. Hydrogen peroxide production is also increased, which might form reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Arsenic's carginogenicity is influenced by the arsenical binding of tubulin, which results in aneuploidy, polyploidy and mitotic arrests. The binding of other arsenic protein targets may also cause altered DNA repair enzyme activity, altered DNA methylation patterns and cell proliferation. (3, 1, 6, 7, 2)
MetabolismZinc can enter the body through the lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal absorption of zinc is controlled by zinc carrier protein CRIP. Zinc also binds to metallothioneins, which help prevent absorption of excess zinc. Zinc is widely distributed and found in all tissues and tissues fluids, concentrating in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart, and pancreas. In the bloodstream zinc is found bound to carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes, as well as bound to albumin, _2-macroglobulin, and amino acids in the the plasma. Albumin and amino acid bound zinc can diffuse across tissue membranes. Zinc is excreted in the urine and faeces. Arsenic is absorbed mainly by inhalation or ingestion, as to a lesser extent, dermal exposure. It is then distributed throughout the body, where it is reduced into arsenite if necessary, then methylated into monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) by arsenite methyltransferase. Arsenic and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Arsenic is known to induce the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which decreases the toxic effects of arsenic and other metals by binding them and making them biologically inactive, as well as acting as an antioxidant. (5, 7)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesZinc arsenate is used as an insecticide and to preserve timber from decay (11).
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (Zinc) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (Zinc) (9) Acute Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0003 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Inhalation: 0.01 mg/m3 (Arsenic) (9)
Health EffectsChronic exposure to zinc causes anemia, atazia, lethargy, and decreases the level of good cholesterol in the body. It is also believed to cause pancreatic and reproductive damage. Arsenic poisoning can lead to death from multi-system organ failure, probably from necrotic cell death, not apoptosis. Arsenic is also a known carcinogen, esepcially in skin, liver, bladder and lung cancers. (3, 5, 7)
SymptomsIngestion of large doses of zinc causes stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Acute inhalation of large amounts of zinc causes metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Dermal contact with zinc results in skin irritation. Exposure to lower levels of arsenic can cause nausea and vomiting, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm, damage to blood vessels, and a sensation of burn (3).
TreatmentZinc poisoning is treated symptomatically, often by administering fluids such as water or milk, or with gastric lavage. Arsenic poisoning can be treated by chelation therapy, using chelating agents such as dimercaprol, EDTA or DMSA. Charcoal tablets may also be used for less severe cases. In addition, maintaining a diet high in sulfur helps eliminate arsenic from the body. (5, 7)
Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6451222
Kegg Compound IDNot Available
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available