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Record Information
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:27 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:08:12 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM000246
Common NameManganese arsenate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionManganese arsenate is a chemical compound of manganese and aresenic. It is derived from arsenic acid. Arsenic is a chemical element that has the symbol As and atomic number 33. It is a poisonous metalloid that has many allotropic forms: yellow (molecular non-metallic) and several black and grey forms (metalloids) are a few that are seen. Three metalloidal forms of arsenic with different crystal structures are found free in nature (the minerals arsenopyrite and the much rarer arsenolamprite and pararsenolamprite), but it is more commonly found as a compound with other elements. Manganese is a naturally occurring metal with the symbol Mn and the atomic number 25. It does not occur naturally in its pure form, but is found in many types of rocks in combination with other substances such as oxygen, sulfur, or chlorine. Manganese occurs naturally in most foods and small amounts are needed to stay healthy, as manganese ions act as cofactors for a number of enzymes. (11, 12, 4)
Contaminant Sources
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 1
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Arsenic Compound
  • Food Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Manganese Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Manganese arsenic acidGenerator
Chemical FormulaAs2Mn3O8
Average Molecular Mass442.653 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass442.617 g/mol
CAS Registry Number61136-68-3
IUPAC Nametrimanganese(2+) ion diarsorate
Traditional Nametrimanganese(2+) ion diarsenate
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/2AsH3O4.3Mn/c2*2-1(3,4)5;;;/h2*(H3,2,3,4,5);;;/q;;3*+2/p-6
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal arsenates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is arsenate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassTransition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassTransition metal arsenates
Direct ParentTransition metal arsenates
Alternative Parents
  • Transition metal arsenate
  • Arsenate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
  • Inorganic metalloid salt
  • Inorganic arsenic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot available.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.25 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability6.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6); dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityManganese is a cellular toxicant that can impair transport systems, enzyme activities, and receptor functions. It primarily targets the central nervous system, particularily the globus pallidus of the basal ganglia. It is believed that the manganese ion, Mn(II), enhances the autoxidation or turnover of various intracellular catecholamines, leading to increased production of free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and other cytotoxic metabolites, along with a depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to oxidative damage and selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons. In addition to dopamine, manganese is thought to perturbations other neurotransmitters, such as GABA and glutamate. In order to produce oxidative damage, manganese must first overwhelm the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase. The neurotoxicity of Mn(II) has also been linked to its ability to substitute for Ca(II) under physiological conditions. It can enter mitochondria via the calcium uniporter and inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. It may also inhibit the efflux of Ca(II), which can result in a loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Mn(II) has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial aconitase activity to a significant level, altering amino acid metabolism and cellular iron homeostasis. Arsenic and its metabolites disrupt ATP production through several mechanisms. At the level of the citric acid cycle, arsenic inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase and by competing with phosphate it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, thus inhibiting energy-linked reduction of NAD+, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP synthesis. Hydrogen peroxide production is also increased, which might form reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Arsenic's carginogenicity is influenced by the arsenical binding of tubulin, which results in aneuploidy, polyploidy and mitotic arrests. The binding of other arsenic protein targets may also cause altered DNA repair enzyme activity, altered DNA methylation patterns and cell proliferation. (3, 1, 11)
MetabolismManganese is absorbed mainly via ingestion, but can also be inhaled. It binds to alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, or transferrin in the plasma and is distributed to the brain and all other mammalian tissues, though it tends to accumulate more in the liver, pancreas, and kidney. Manganese is capable of existing in a number of oxidation states and is believed to undergo changes in oxidation state within the body. Manganese oxidation state can influence tissue toxicokinetic behavior, and possibly toxicity. Manganese is excreted primarily in the faeces. Arsenic is absorbed mainly by inhalation or ingestion, as to a lesser extent, dermal exposure. It is then distributed throughout the body, where it is reduced into arsenite if necessary, then methylated into monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) by arsenite methyltransferase. Arsenic and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Arsenic is known to induce the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which decreases the toxic effects of arsenic and other metals by binding them and making them biologically inactive, as well as acting as an antioxidant. (7, 11)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesManganese arsenates are used as insecticides, fungicides (2).
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.0003 mg/m3 (Manganese) (9) Acute Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0003 mg/kg/day (Arsenic) (9) Chronic Inhalation: 0.01 mg/m3 (Arsenic) (9)
Health EffectsManganese mainly affects the nervous system and may cause behavioral changes and other nervous system effects, which include movements that may become slow and clumsy. This combination of symptoms when sufficiently severe is referred to as “manganism”. (11)
SymptomsThe symptoms of manganese toxicity may appear slowly over months and years; they include tremors, difficulty walking, and facial muscle spasms. These symptoms are often preceded by other lesser symptoms, including irritability, aggressiveness, and hallucinations. (11)
TreatmentArsenic poisoning can be treated by chelation therapy, using chelating agents such as dimercaprol, EDTA or DMSA. Charcoal tablets may also be used for less severe cases. In addition, maintaining a diet high in sulfur helps eliminate arsenic from the body. (7)
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID3045788
Kegg Compound IDNot Available
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available