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Record Information
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:20 UTC
Update Date2016-11-09 01:08:11 UTC
Accession NumberCHEM000205
Common NameArsine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionArsine is a highly toxic gas formed when arsenic-containing materials react with hydrogen in water or acids. It is nonirritating and colorless, with a slight garlic odor. (3)
Contaminant Sources
  • Clean Air Act Chemicals
  • EAFUS Chemicals
  • HPV EPA Chemicals
  • IARC Carcinogens Group 1
  • OSHA Hazardous Chemicals
  • T3DB toxins
Contaminant Type
  • Arsenic Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Arsenic blackHMDB
Arsenic elementalHMDB
Grey arsenicHMDB
Metallic arsenicHMDB
Chemical FormulaAsH3
Average Molecular Mass77.945 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass77.945 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7784-42-1
IUPAC Namearsenic(3+) ion
Traditional Namearsenic(3+) ion
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/AsH3/h1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous metalloid compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a metalloid atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous metalloid
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceColorless gas.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point> 615°C
Boiling Point−62.5 °C
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6183cd0482f342082392View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6183cd0482f342082392View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6183cd0482f342082392View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-30fac8ea879bd5e34966View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-30fac8ea879bd5e34966View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-30fac8ea879bd5e34966View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation
Mechanism of ToxicityArsine enters the bloodstream and crosses the alveolo-capillary membrane into red blood cells. Here it preferentially binds to hemoglobin and is oxidized to an arsenic dihydride intermediate and elemental arsenic, both of which are hemolytic agents. Arsine also depletes the reduced glutathione content of the red blood cells, resulting in the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in hemoglobin and red cell membranes. These effects produce membrane instability, resulting in hemolysis. Arsine may also inhibit catalase, which leads to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. This destroys red cell membranes and may contribute to arsine-induced conversion of Fe+2 to Fe+3, which also impairs oxygen transport. (3)
MetabolismArsine is gradually converted to arsenite (As3+), then methylated into monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids. It is primarily excreted in the urine. (1)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 2.5 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (2) LC50: 20 ppm over 1 hour (Inhalation, Rat) (5)
Lethal Dose3 ppm for an adult human.
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (4)
Uses/SourcesExposure to arsine usually occurs in an industrial setting, as it is often produced as a byproduct during the smelting and refining of metals. It is also used in the manufacture of semiconductors and crystals for fiberoptics and computer chips.
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.016 mg/m3 (6)
Health EffectsArsine exposure causes haemolytic anaemia, polyneuropathy, hypotension, and damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, nervous system, heart, and blood-forming organs. (3)
SymptomsThe first signs of arsine exposure are difficultly breathing, headaches, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, skin discoloration, and haemoglobinuria. (3)
TreatmentThere is no antidote for arsine. Treatment is symptomatic and consists of measures to support respiratory, vascular, and renal function. Whole blood transfusions may be effective if significant haemolysis has occurred. (3)
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB003763
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkArsenic
Chemspider ID94549
ChEBI ID35828
PubChem Compound ID104734
Kegg Compound IDC06269
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
1. Tanmoy Rana et al. Contribution of arsenic from agricultural food chain to cow milk in highly arsenic prone zone in Nadia District of West Bengal in India.The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine Vol 4(2)
2. A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation)
3. Patricia Cava-Montesinos, M. Luisa Cervera Agustín Pastor Miguel de la Guardia. 2005. Room temperature acid sonication ICP-MS multielemental analysis of milk.Analytica Chimica Acta Volume 531, Issue 1, Pages 111-123
4. Z. Dobrzański, R. Kołacz, H. Górecka, K. Chojnacka, A. Bartkowiak. 2005. The Content of Microelements and Trace Elements in Raw Milk from Cows in the Silesian Region. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 14(5):685–689
5. Anetor JI, Wanibuchi H, Fukushima S: Arsenic exposure and its health effects and risk of cancer in developing countries: micronutrients as host defence. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jan-Mar;8(1):13-23.
6. Jones FT: A broad view of arsenic. Poult Sci. 2007 Jan;86(1):2-14.